Judaica (Jewish Art), assemblage of artistic creation of the Jewish since the early days of Jewish culture to the present. Collected, preservation of this art's research specific area began to develop during the 19th century.
From the dawn arose, Jewish culture has created objects and writings related to the Jewish life cycle, which were used as they are used, for team practices, both in the synagogue and at home. This work culture, represented among others in archeology, painting, drawing, printing, and decorations and silver, ceramics, porcelain, embroidery and design of textiles, and more recently the works of new materials and virtual works.
Religious objects related to worship have been used since the early formation of Judaism, and tools listed in Exodus Tabernacle , High Priest's clothing, etc. (such episodes - Power).
However, at the base of the Jewish faith is a moral stance toward creating two accompanying material for the commandments, whose roots reach to the exodus from Egypt , spoke first of the Ten Commandments "... do not do thee any graven image" (Exodus on Wednesday). This etched sentence left his mark as a shadow hovering on Jewish creativity ever since and brought the religious leadership of Israel, often resist various forms of artistic expression. On the other hand, was among many Jews believe that the desire to express the relationship between art materials and believes in the Creator, and thus became religious objects, integrated customs of the Jewish home, synagogue ceremonies practices holidays actual mode of expression this link.
With the destruction
Temple first exile, synagogues were established in Babylon, as sanctuaries in which they came from there "(Ezekiel K P), which was becoming home to the work of Jewish religious art. Known from the Second Temple in Jerusalem and Galilee synagogues and at the same time were also synagogues in Rome, Egypt and Babylon, of course. Some of the ancient synagogues were decorated with drawings and paintings based on stories of the Bible , including their moral lesson was emphasized. One striking example is from the ancient synagogue in Dura Europos (Syria), which was built in the 3rd century AD when the burgeoning prosperity of Talmudic Judaism. on the walls can be find plenty of paintings depicting Bible stories and Midrashim different.
The Talmud describes them portraits of coins minted fathers and heroes of the Bible (Bava Kama Caza b). Archaeological excavations in synagogues Sardis, Turkey (2nd century) ancient candle (Heat Leaf) Tunisia (4th century AD) were floors mosaic decorated.
Mosaic floors on which the human figure paintings, subjects from mythology and plots from the Bible were common in Israel from the Byzantine period until the Arab conquest. Famous of these is the mosaic floor in the ancient synagogue in Kibbutz Beit Alfa, which describes the binding of Isaac , of the Zodiac and the ark . Synagogue in Jerash Jordan (5th century) has a mosaic floor that includes a picture of seven-branched candelabrum around her, including ritual objects Shofar , Lulav dried (sacred vessels in the Temple). Holy ark lamp are returning prominent concepts mosaic floors decorated synagogues in the alpha Na'aran (Jordan Valley). More modest decorations found in the catacombs (burial caves systems underground - underground) in Israel and abroad. Jewish coffins decorated with geometric patterns and mythological figures were found in the Jezreel Valley goals.
From the Talmud preserved a few remnants of Jewish Art Jewish home. These include coins coined by Bar Kokhba in the Mutiny with the names of the two heads of government, Shimon President Eleazar the priest, written in Hebrew national religious issues that symbolize the renewal of Temple's work, such as the Ark (and possibly facade of the Temple), a pitcher, lulav, etrog, and olive branch harp and trumpets - symbolizing the temple instruments. Also appear on these coins motifs symbolizing the land of Israel: palm tree, grape vine leaf cluster. Lamps made of stone decorated synagogues in part Hamat Tiberias on hand and at the gates. Metal lamps and candles used for lighting in the synagogues and have a visual expression is not preserved mosaic floors. On the other hand were several oil lamps bronze clay from the Talmud, their wall decorations adorned in Temple, seven-branched candelabrum, lulav, etrog and shofar.
Etrog Box 1991 (creation of Israel Dahan and Bronstein)
Industry glass in Israel during the Talmudic produced glassware decorated Jewish symbols. Gold round glass plates that were created during this period in Palestine were found in the catacombs in Rome. These were decorated with motifs such as books and scrolls ark in it, seven-branched candelabrum, lulav, etrog, shofar, protested, juglet palm tree oil. Even bottles, glass decorated with amulets and seals Jewish symbols , and those found throughout the Roman Empire.
In addition, there were Jews who used to carve actually a stone (as found in archaeological Beit Shearim) and weave and paint fabrics. The caves of Qumran in the Judean Desert few textiles have survived, indicating the existence of prayer shawls decorated, and the Babylonian Talmud we learn about the Torah scrolls decorated in gold letters in the Talmud.
Operated during the Byzantium Empire in Haiconukelstit movement (a movement opposed to painting images of saints), which aims to pull down statues of human waste and later destroying images in churches where human figures. Muslims also held opposing approach to painting figures. With the spread of
Islam in the seventh century Ubhiachneam this trend, the Jews ceased East, southern Europe and the Mediterranean region decorate synagogues decorate the human figures and animals.
Late medieval Judaism's position changes were noted for art. Ancient manuscripts originating in Spain and identification of Religious paintings tabernacle and the temple next drawing and writing marginal decorations. Haggadah of Passover , such as the Sarajevo Haggadah (14th century) are drawings of Bible stories, picture of the temple during the messiah paintings Jewish Experience. Europe were decorated with Bible stories manuscripts, Jewish Experience, animals and landscapes.
Approximately in the 11th century, northern France, Jews used rope Rhine decorate the walls of synagogues murals depicting stories from the Bible (Rashi Saturday crease a). German customs books of the 12th century to describe figures are evidence of animals in the synagogue, especially before the ark. Opposition to this practice among religious leaders (a fact suggesting that this procedure was acceptable) is also other books from that period.
By Jewish artists such as painters, jewelers monarchy books were all Jewish communities in the Diaspora. Jews in Italy were published mainly in painting silversmith, who made ritual objects and commands, but they almost did not survive. Destruction, burning and looting caused entire communities to find their place, and Jews were forbidden to take the precious things they had. In other cases, the synagogues were selling sacred objects for the redemption of prisoners or providing assistance to refugees. Natural weathering and destruction of objects and replacing old and new objects fashionably time and place of disappearance brought most sacred objects that were acceptable in the Middle Ages, from the late Middle Ages and a few remained.
Early modern period
In the second half of the 15th century, with the invention of
Pattern , began the decline of art decorated Hebrew manuscripts. The place of miniatures (miniature paintings) Development woodcuts took copper , but also in the 17th and 18th century Hebrew books were written a few illustrated miniature portraits, and scrolls of Esther sometimes even decorated with artistic paintings. In the 18th century reappeared banks prayer books (cycle) for the holidays, Shayoriam art influenced by Baroque and Rococo .
Jews expelled from Spain who founded their communities mainly in Western Europe, banned synagogues decoration, substitute used to decorate the homes. This phenomenon was also influential Ashkenazi neighbors. During the 17th and 18th there was a moderation approach Haiconukelstit religious art in Europe, followed by considerable prosperity Abaytoariam of synagogues in the work of Jewish ritual objects and commands. A prominent place occupied paintings atmosphere decorations Hagaddah's Book of Esther.
As a result of economic abundance and trade with colonies across the Atlantic, there was also accelerated development of Jewish material culture. This development led to flourishing of Jewish Arts, followed by began to appear among the Jewish communities artistic Religious orders, some delicate materials such as porcelain , which complied with the spirit of the economic welfare of the customer objects.
Obviously, the synagogues were designed Jewish ritual objects of artistic tradition in Europe in the spirit of the environment and period. Jews often adopted a secular objects used, and by a slight change (such as Jewish meaningful decoration, or the addition of a Hebrew inscription) Ahpkohu object with a religious affiliation. Religious Articles also designed to begin to use religious, inspired from the environment in which they were created. This phenomenon is particularly evident Religious commandment made money , because there were periods of European Jews were forbidden to engage in jewelry and they needed the services of Christian jewelers. However, in Islamic countries, most of the Jewish jewelers, art also affected non-Jewish environment.
At that time the various Emirates rulers employed Jewish traders, known as the "court Jew." These traders provided the rulers Ulahcarm army and food supplies, along with luxuries such as gems and jewelry. Court Jew in the 17th century were mainly German states, but during the 18th century, Jews were in similar positions in France, England and Russia. Jews took an active part in major trade fairs held in Europe, and often wealthy Jews financed major art transactions.
Menorah 1982 (Israel's creation in collaboration with Gadi Dahan Ainbeindar)
Central and Eastern Europe has developed a school of professional artists who have worked at their request of the Jews of the yard. Spanish communities in the Netherlands especially evolved art colonies tombstones, which would incorporate works of art with religious themes. At the end of the 18th century painters were renowned among Ashkenazi Jews in Germany, Holland and England, some of whom expressed an interest and an inspiration in daily life to Jewish life, the spirit released from the shackles of European art and the church. Hundred years later were prominent painters Achmoric (Daniel) Oppenheim (1801-1882), Leopold Horowitz (1838 - 1917) from Slovakia, who specialized in painting portraits also Maurycy (Moshe David) Gottlieb (1856-1879) from Galicia, the subjects also drew Jewish sources .
Among Jews living in Islamic countries a substantial late 19th century desire to emulate European culture, and the rest were Jews in these countries to copy printed in Christian holy books (mainly Italy) and models of synagogues, ritual objects and commands.
Influence of the Enlightenment and deepening the process of secularization of European society is not spared the Jewish community, and many Jews have made efforts to integrate the new agenda in Europe. As a result of decreased use of decorations and sacred objects commandment, if already made, it often Nderedra quality. Another reason for withdrawal at the illustrations and decorations indoor growing Abschihutam the holy books are printed. These books were decorated with engravings prepared that have been copied Christian Bibles of the period.
The field of research, conservation and collection of Jewish art, which evolved in the 19th century Judaica acceptable name. Within this framework are shown in museums and exhibitions worldwide including Jewish ritual objects and commands, mostly related to Jewish rituals that were common in various communities around the world through the ages. In recent times great effort was made in the Jewish world to document the information related to Judaica and of course the works of art themselves, which many of them found in the possession of collectors.
With the great immigration wave from Europe to the United States early immigration to Israel Israel late 19th and early 20th century occurred in two parallel phenomena in the development of Judaica. First, preservation of Jewish tradition through art, as part of the design and people's collective memory. Second, creating a new tradition that includes new icons of the period, related to Israel origin of sacred objects commandment.
Judaica (Photo: Michael Kramer)
Meanwhile, artists began to appear (mostly young) who sought to incorporate Jewish themes of contemporary European art. Some went to Paris, which was considered at that time the center of creation and innovation, and got "School of Paris", which some of its members came from towns of Eastern Europe. Among the prominent artists in circumvention Paris
Camille Pizarro (1830-1903) Impressionist, Marc Chagall (1887-1985) surreal expressionism, the spirit of Jewish mysticism of Hasidism were among the main sources of his work, Amadeo Modigliani (1884-1920), great painters of the school.
Jewish art and it also revealed the public was exposed during the 19th century and early 20th century was limited to the destruction of important collections during the Holocaust .
Early 20th century evolved into the Jewish community in
Zionism began to create a secular new Jewish Art. Boris Schatz (1866-1932), philosopher Bezalel founder, planned vision to build a place to be not only an art school, but at Art Center. He initiated and established a place where there were workshops and sale of art and Jewish and Israeli Art Museum. Over the years, works of art were transferred to the Bezalel Museum Collection to the Israel Museum in Jerusalem and are now showing there.
Jewish artists influenced by European Orientalism (purporting to create a stream of artistic style of the Near East) of the 19th century, like Ephraim Moses Lilien (1874 - 1925), Ze'ev Raban (1890 - 1970) Abel Pann (1883-1963), began to form early 20th Jewish Orientalism style - new landmarks.
Motifs of an ancient tradition features a combination of new symbols of Jewish art in the 20th century to the present. Jewish art that developed in the early rise through the establishment of the State Zionist significant new identity style, are expressed using Aartzishreleime motifs, such as agriculture, fruit and earth (representing the connection to the land of Israel), nature, children dancing, soldiers and the flag state (instead of Shield David ). through these images sought to emphasize the Hivenutv creators of Israel in its land and suppress the exilic past.
Meanwhile, the United States have developed Jewish Art Jewish immigrants since the early 20th century, and today is the City of New - York and the activity center of Jewish artists from the Diaspora. Jewish Art widespread throughout the U.S., so for example, can be found in a small town in the northwest United States artist who weaves prayer shawls and markets them worldwide.
Contemporary Jewish Art
In the 70s of the 20th century there was a flowering of Jewish art in Israel and the U.S. especially, and with it began to disappear some of the characteristics of traditional sacred objects, such as simplicity of ancient motifs (eg, hanging story
Haman Esther Scrolls decorations). The place of the old themes of beauty captured content and aesthetics that developed following the need to satisfy their goal of social status seekers collectors (gold objects for example), and for personal gifts and souvenirs, made sometimes with a wink of humor (eg, clip-shaped rattle). Artists also create shows and artists exhibitions and religious artifacts for research.
This development has intensified the study of Jewish art, and one of the important enterprises (who conceived and established Bezalel Narkiss) field is the Center for Jewish Art in Jerusalem, which began its operations in 1979 under the auspices of the Hebrew University . In recent years, established a trend of Jewish Art at Bar Ilan University, research institutes and academic institutions in the United States and Europe Jewish courses offered in the field.
Since the 80s of the 20th century and a significant increase in number who are interested in Jewish art, Jewish museums rose worldwide as part of preservation, collection and restoration of synagogues, Jewish religious artifacts and customs are disappearing. Cities in the world, particularly in Europe (such as Faraj, Czech Republic and other cities in Spain), discovered the possibility to profit from tourism Jewish, and develop the remains of Jewish life that existed in previous generations